This page gives my most current times and dilutions for the film and developer combinations listed.  Do note that only a few of these are "regular" films for me, that is, films I routinely keep on hand and use.  At present, I am in process of standardizing to Arista.EDU Ultra (rebranded Fomapan) 100 and 400 for 35 mm and 120, have used Fomapan 100 and expired Tri-X Professional (ISO 320) for a couple years in 9x12 cm, and use Fomapan 100 and Arista.EDU 400 (Made in Hungary, rebranded Fortepan) in 4x5 (next order, I'll likely switch to .EDU Ultra in this size also, if this film is available in this size).  My reasons for these selections are mainly based on price -- the Foma and Forte films are quite good, and very nicely priced, while the Tri-X Professional is the only film faster than ISO 100 that I've seen available in the USA in 9x12 cm (and it's now special order, if still available at all).

This page is getting long enough to need some markers -- click on the anchor links below to go directly to those sections.

HC-110
Parodinal
D-23
Caffenol
Caffenol C
Caffenol LC
Caffenol LC+C
H&W Control
Super Soup
B&W Reversal
2-Bath C-41 Developer

If you weren't referred here from there, please also see the Massive Development Chart at DigitalTruth.

HC-110
Film (EI)
Dilution
Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
(old) Tri-X (400)
1+79
15
3
(old) Tri-X (800)
1+119 28
3
(old) Tri-X Professional (320)
1+79
12
3
APX 400
1+79 15
3
400TMY
1+79 15
3
Classic 400
1+79
19
3
Foma/Ultra 400
1+79
21
3
Neopan 100 SS
1+79
13
3
Fomapan 100
1+79 15
3
Delta 100
1+79
10
3
Efke R100
1+79
16
3
Imagelink HQ (25, pictorial)
1+119
25
5

Parodinal
250 ml
Water
30 tablets @ 500 mg
Acetaminophen
50 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
20 g
Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)
Mix in order indicated, let stand in sealed container 72 hours before using.  Keep crystals from bottom of container with liquid when decanting, stir before drawing off concentrate for dilution.  Use dilutions and times as for Agfa Rodinal.  Use within 30 minutes of dilution.

Developer concentrate has been found to keep more than 90 days in a clear glass jar with considerable air space, partially full.  It may last longer with efforts to minimize air exposure (minimum size jar, gas blanketing to exclude air, etc.), but keeping only 90 days is recommended.
Film (EI)
Dilution
Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
Neopan 100 SS 1:50
21
3
Acros 100
1:50
19
3
Fomapan 100/.EDU Ultra 100
1:50
11
3
Classic 400
1:50
16
3
Copex Rapid (40)
1:100



Parodinal LF: Low Fog Variant, 18 April 2006
75 ml
Water (125° F/52° C)
12 tablets @ 500 mg
Acetaminophen
20 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
10 g
Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)
0.1 g
Potassium Bromide

Cold Water to make 100 ml
Experimental reduced fog formula.  Little change in fog (based on other formulae, may need as much as 5x this quantity of potassium bromide), and poor longevity -- developer was as dark as coffee after only two weeks, likely due to excess sodium hydroxide.  Not recommended.


Parodinal LF: Low Fog Variant, second version, 3 May 2006
75 ml Water
12 tablets @ 500 mg Acetaminophen
20 g Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
8 g Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)
0.5 g Potassium Bromide

Water to make 100 ml
Second version of experimental low fog formula.  Increased potassium bromide from first version, returned sodium hydroxide to same level as original Parodinal.  Shelf life has been tested at more than six months in partially full, tightly closed glass bottle.

Initial testing shows same times as original Parodinal.

Film (EI) Dilution Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
Plus-X Negative (cine) (125)
1:50
13
3
Fomapan 100/.EDU Ultra 100 (100)
1:50
11
3
Fortepan/Classic/.EDU 400 (400)
1:50
16
3
Fomapan 400/.EDU Ultra 400 (400)
1:50
16.5
3
Parodinal LF: Low Fog Variant, third version, 3 March 2007
75 ml
Water (110° F)
12 tablets @ 500 mg
Acetaminophen
20 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
8 g
Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)
1.0 g
Potassium Bromide

Water to make 100 ml
Third version of experimental low fog formula.  Further increase to potassium bromide (still chasing fog levels comparable to D-76 or HC-110), no other change from second variant.
Film (EI)
Dilution
Time (at 20° C)
Agitation Interval
Foma/Ultra 100 (400)
1:50
16.5
3
Foma/Ultra 400 (400)
1:50
16.5
3
Foma/Ultra 100 (100)
1:50
11
3
.EDU (Forte) 400 (400) -- in trays
1:25
5
1
Parodinal LF: Low Fog Variant, fourth version, 22 September 2008
75 ml
Water (110° F)
12 tablets @ 500 mg
Acetaminophen (aka paracetamol, n-acetyl p-aminophenol)
20 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
8 g
Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)
5 g
Potassium Bromide

Water to make 100 ml
Fourth version of experimental low-fog formula.  Large increase in bromide level after little change in fog with previous LF variants, no other change.
Film (EI)
Dilution
Time (at 20° C)
Agitation Interval
Foma/Ultra 100 -- in trays
1:50
8.5
1

Kodak D-23

In all formulae containing Metol, one should dissolve a pinch of the sodium sulfite first, then the metol, then the remaining sulfite.  This prevents the metol oxidizing before the sulfite can be added, but avoids problems with low solubility of metol in a strong sulfite solution.

750 ml
Water
7.5 g
Metol
100.0 g
Sodium Sulfite

Water to make 1.0 L

Balanced Alkali Replenisher (aka DK-25R)

Add 22 ml per 135-36, 120, or 8x10 equivalent developed, discarding developer if needed to maintain volume.  Formula contains sodium hydroxide and borax equivalent to 20.0 grams sodium metaborate, aka Kodak Balanced Alkali (Kodalk).  My source gives no indication how long replenishment may be carried on with D-23, so one will need to watch for changes in negatives.

750 ml
Water
10.0 g
Metol
100.0 g
Sodium Sulfite
1.9 g
Sodium Hydroxide
9.8 g
Borax

Water to make 1.0 L
Film (IE)
Dilution
Time (at 20° C)
Agitation Interval
.EDU (Fortepan) 400 (400)
Stock
13
3
.EDU Ultra (Fomapan) 100 (100)
Stock
15
3
.EDU Ultra (Fomapan) 400 (400)
Stock
22.5
3


Caffenol
8 oz.
Water
2 tsp (level)
Arm & Hammer Washing Soda
4 tsp (slightly rounded) Folger's Coffee Crystals
Mix soda until completely dissolved and solution is clear.  Add coffee, mix until all grittiness is gone and solution is uniform, let stand 5-10 minutes until microbubbles clear.  Use within 30 minutes.  Gives imagewise stain and general (fog) stain.
Film (EI)
Time (at 20° C)
Agitation Interval
(old) Tri-X (400)
30
1
Fomapan 100
30
1

Caffenol C
8 oz.
Water
2 1/2 tsp (level)
Arm & Hammer Washing Soda
1 g
Ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid (supplement or technical, 97%)
4 tsp (slightly rounded) Folger's Coffee Crystals
Mix as for Caffenol.  Expect slight film speed increase (1/3 to 2/3 stop) and little or no stain.
Film (EI)
Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
(old) Tri-X (400)
12
31
Fomapan 400/Ultra 400
12
12
HP5+
12
13
Note 1: Flow marks; adjustment still required.
Note 2: Very heavy fog, may be untenable combination.
Note 3: Considerable fog, but contrast looks okay.

Caffenol LC (low contrast microfilm developer)
8 oz
Water
2 tsp (level)
Arm & Hammer Washing Soda
2 tsp (slightly rounded)
Folger's Coffee Crystals
Mix as for Caffenol.  Use with microfilms to give pictorial contrast.  Mild imagewise stain, little or no general stain.
Film (EI) Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
Imagelink HQ (25, pictorial)
25
1
Copex Rapid (50, pictorial)
30
1

Caffenol LC+C (speed enhancing low contrast microfilm developer)
8 oz
Water
4 tsp (level)
Arm & Hammer Washing Soda
.26 g (4 grain)
Ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid (supplement or technical, 97%)
2 tsp (slightly rounded)
Folger's Coffee Crystals
Mix as for Caffenol; mix 1/4 tsp ascorbic acid in one quart water, and use 8 ounces for the developer.  Use with microfilms to give increased speed with pictorial contrast.  No detectable stain.
Film (EI) Time (at 20° C) Agitation Interval
Copex Rapid (64, pictorial)
15
3
ADOX CMS 20 (EI 20, pictorial)
15
3
H&W Control

H&W Control dates back to the late 1960s and a patent issued in 1973, which is long expired.  Its major drawback is that, in modern usage for microfilm in subminiature cameras, even 100 ml of concentrate is likely to expire due to oxidation in a partly full container before it can be used up -- my subminiature developing tank requires only sixty milliliters of working solution for a roll of Minolta 16 (60 cm by 16 mm width) or similar size film, which means 100 ml will process twenty-five rolls; that's more than I shoot (in this format) in a year, but the shelf life is listed as, at most, six months in a completely full glass or PET bottle.

My formula is an attempt to create a longer life version by adding the phenidone to the solution at dilution time.  Unlike the original formula, because I'm not attempting to dissolve the phenidone in the stock solution, I don't need to start with hot water.  The commercial Bluefire Police developer, available from Frugal Photographer, is said (by the proprietor of that business) to be a long life reformulation of H&W Control, also, though his method is clearly different from mine, since his concentrate simply needs to be diluted and used.

It's recommended in my sources to avoid acid stop bath because the sodium carbonate forms carbon dioxide in contact with acid, and can cause pinholes in the emulsion from bubble formation.  The amount of carbonate in the diluted developer is so low, and the emulsions of microfilms so thin, that I doubt this is actually a problem, but no harm is done by using one or two rinses in plain water in place of acid stop bath.

100 ml
Water
1.9 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
0.3 g
Hydroquinone
8.7 g
Sodium Carbonate
To make 200 ml
Water
15.15 g
Sodium Sulfite

Water to make 250 ml
Mix ingredients in order listed, ensuring each is fully dissolved before adding the next.  Make up your phenidone as a stock solution, 1 g/L strength in 91% or stronger isopropyl alcohol (available at pharmacies), in which that little phenidone will pretty readily dissolve and will keep for years, then add one part phenidone stock for each 12 parts of developer stock solution at time of dilution.  Use one part stock to fifteen parts water; do not attempt to store or reuse the stock solution, as once diluted it has a working life of only hours, at most.

Film (EI)
Time (at 20° C)
Agitation Interval
Copex Rapid (80)
14
3


Super Soup

This developer was created in an attempt to salvage some Tri-X sheet film negatives that were loaded backward and exposed through the base, approximately five stops of antihalation between the lens and the emulsion.  It works very well, and with the recommended process prints at near-normal contrast rather than showing the extreme contrast you'd get with a conventional push (which, in any case, can't come anywhere near this level).  It seems to get literally everything possible out of any film on which I've treid it -- and given what's in it, is most likely developing to completion, which is what controls the contrast.

6 ounces water
24 ml Dektol stock solution
8 ml HC-110 syrup (or 32 ml stock solution)
1 g ascorbic acid
1/2 tsp washing soda (sodium carbonate monohydrate)
2 g potassium bromide (optional)
Water to make eight ounces

Develop for fifteen minutes, agitating very vigorously every thirty seconds.  Stop and fix normally.  Some fog is normal, and can be printed through.  You will (of course) see an increase in grain, but it's not as much as you might expect; with large format and even the larger medium format negatives the grain increase may be barely noticeable (and isn't objectionable in comparison to super-fast films in 35 mm).
Film
Effective EI
Tri-X (ISO 400), 400TX
6400
Tri-X (ISO 320), 320TXP, TXT
5000
Forte 200/Classic 200
1000

B&W Reversal -- first attempt, 26 May 2006

Please note: potassium dichromate (used in the bleach) is quite toxic and is considered a hazardous material; the hexavalent chromium is both a very serious pollutant and a suspected carcinogen.  Potassium dichromate can also cause skin injury from contact, as well as being very bad to breathe or get in your eyes.  It's best mixed under a chemical fume hood or outdoors with the wind at your back, using disposable gloves and a dust filter that will be discarded after use, as well as a face shield or safety goggles designed to protect against splashes.  Sulfuric acid is also hazardous, causing skin burns on contact and potentially causing blindness or other serious injury -- even death.  Always add acid to water, never water to acid; this is to prevent a water drop from boiling as it mixes with the acid and spattering acid drops.

Please familiarize youself with the safe handling of these chemicals before attempting to mix bleach bath.  There are alternates, using potassium permanganate or copper sulfate, which are less chemically hazardous but tend to soften the emulsion and make it prone to damage; potassium dichromate hardens the emulsion (and, by all reports, makes a better bleach), so I've chosen to use it for this process (also, I have it on hand, obtained for alt-process printing, and don't have any permanganate).

Other than the bleach bath, the chemicals used in reversal processing B&W films are hardly different from those used in conventional B&W processing and no more (or less) hazardous.

First Developer:
Dektol 2+1
(two parts stock solution to one part water)
8 g/L Sodium Thiosulfate (halide solvent, to clear highlights)
4 g/L Potassium Bromide (restrainer, to prevent loss of shadow density)

Bleach:
10 g/L Potassium Dichromate
12 g/L Concentrated Sulfuric Acid (I used 36 ml of battery acid, appr. 33%, purchased from a parts store)

Clearing bath:
100 g/L Sodium Sulfite

Second Developer:
HC-110 Dilution F (originally, I used Dektol 1+1, but the HC-110 gives finer, smoother grain)

Though reversal processes are often listed as not requiring it, I don't see how it can hurt to fix the film following the second developer, and can easily see how it could hurt *not* to do so; fix and wash are as normal for the film used.  Since I use my fixer one-shot, however, I don't usually bother with a stop bath or rinse step between developer and fixer.

My initial attempt is with 35 mm Tri-X, expired in early 2001 (this would be TX, not the very slightly reformulated 400TX now available).  I've chosen to use light exposure to fog the remaining halide after bleaching and clearing, though in the future I might buy some "Iron Out", a commercial laundry product based on sodium hydrosulfite (aka sodium dithionite), which is an effective foggant.

First Developer
12 minutes (increased from 10 on first attempt), 5 inversions each minute
Water Rinse
3 changes, with agitation
Bleach
5 minutes, constant agitation
Water Rinse
3 changes, with agitation
Clearing Bath
2 minutes, 5 inversions each minute
Water Rinse
30 seconds
Reversal Exposure
2 minutes each side (equivalent to the Ilford recommendation w/ my lights)
Second Developer
7 minutes, 5 inversions each minute
Fixer
2 minutes (rapid fixer), 5 inversions each minute
Wash
3 changes, with agitation (Ilford method)

Preliminary results were promising: all the frames had positive images in them!  Even better, all had detail in shadows, though those that include sky appeared, to my eyeball, to have burned that out.  This was a short test roll, only about 15 frames, but I did bracket a few shots one stop under, and where I did, those look better in terms of detail at the ends of the range (though even darker) than the ones that were exposed at EI 400.  This first roll was quite grainy, almost certainly due to use of Dektol (a very active developer with less fine-grain character than common film developers like D-76 or HC-110) as the second developer.

For the second attempt, I shot the film at EI 640 (to improve rendition of highlights at the cost of shadows, which were *too* good), increased first developer time from 10 minutes to 12 (to lighten the slides and compensate the reduced exposures), and changed from 5 minutes in Dektol 1+1 to 7 minutes with HC-110 Dilution F for the second developer.  These slides are a little light, but otherwise excellent; grain is about like the best I get with this film as negatives.  Third roll has been shot at EI 800 (to darken the slides a little), but hasn't yet been processed.

I found it interesting that although Ilford recommends against using HP5+ because its "inherent contrast" is too low, the contrast of these Tri-X slides looks just fine -- though I've seen conflicting information on whether increasing first development will increase contrast or just push the image up the curve, making it lighter and boosting the effective film speed.  In my scans, it seemed that my 20% boost in first dev time did increase contrast a little, giving a significantly wider histogram, though the non-linear scale makes it hard to be certain this isn't just an artifact of lightening the image.

Dignan NCF-41 -- Two-Bath C-41 Color Developer

This developer was originally published by Patrick D. Dignan in the November-December 1995 issue of Phototechniques magazine.  I've modified the Bath B very slightly to use more readily available chemicals and to reflect my own experience.

Like most two-bath developers, little or no development takes place in Bath A; the developer permeates the emulsion, however, and the chemical thus carried over into Bath B does the work, developing essentially to exhaustion in the time allotted for Bath B.  This makes the process relatively insensitive to temperature variations; Dignan recommends 75° F, but my experience shows that, because it develops to exhaustion, the developer works effectively the same over a range of temperature from about 70° F up to at least 85° F.  Also like most two-bath systems, the Bath A has a very long life; I made up a liter initially, and have processed equivalent of about ten rolls over two months with no change in results (though I'm about to make up some more Bath A to use in replenishing the working solution, much as I'd use fresh Diafine to replenish the solutions in use).  The Bath A solution does tend to discolor over time with dyes washed out of the film, but this doesn't seem to cause any change in working characteristics.

Bath B is to be used one-shot -- it contains no preservative, and in fact is essentially just an alkaline solution of the proper pH with some restrainer added to control fog.  Dignan originally called out both potassium bromide and benzotriazole, but since I didn't have any benzotriazole (and the notes I found with the formula suggested Dignan had used the developer without it), I doubled his level of potassium bromide and found the developer worked fine that way.  This B bath is very cheap, so it's not painful to toss it down the drain after use.

I calculate that despite paying $24 for 100 grams of CD-4 to make the Bath A, this developer costs me around a nickel a roll to use because of the long life of Bath A and low cost of Bath B -- as was always the case, it's the bleach that's expensive (commercial bleach is $26 a gallon and is used as it comes, undiluted, a gallon good for about 32 rolls), but I'll soon be testing a homemade ferricyanide bleach.  C-41 fixer and final rinse are so cheap I doubt I'll ever bother trying to make up substitutes -- the fixer is similarly priced to B&W rapid fixer, and if you can find no-starter-needed third party C-41 fixers, they're typically even cheaper than the Kodak Flexicolor Fixer, while Flexicolor Final Rinse is similarly priced and used at similar dilution to PhotoFlo (1+110, or 9 ml to make a liter of working solution) -- again, not really worth seeking a substitute.

It is strongly recommended to increase bleach and fixing times over those given in the usual C-41 documentation; due to lower temperature, these baths will work slower than they would at the canonical 100° F.  I've found that Flexicolor Bleach III gets the job done in ten minutes, even so, and I've been giving ten minutes in fixer as well.  However, you can neither overbleach nor overfix C-41; both processes should be carried to completion, and no harm can be done by leaving the film in these baths longer (within reason).

Bath A
300 ml
Distilled Water
0.5 g
Sodium Bisulfite
5.5 g
CD-4
4.5 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)

Distilled water to make 500 ml
pH at 75° F should be 6.5 or lower (though I haven't tested mine, having no way to check pH)

Bath B
500 ml
Distilled or Filtered Water
45 g
Sodium Carbonate (monohydrate) aka washing soda
1 g
Potassium Bromide

Water to make 1 liter
pH with original potassium carbonate is listed as 11.8 at 75° F; sodium carbonate should give 11.6 and works just fine

Bath Time
Bath A
3 minutes, return to storage container
Bath B
6 minutes, pour down drain
Times as originally given include 15 seconds pour-out and drain time, i.e. start pouring off when fifteen seconds remain.  In practice, like all two-bath systems, Bath A time is grossly non-critical as long as a minimum of three minutes is given; one needs only to ensure enough time for the developer to completely saturate the emulsion.  Further, Bath B cannot overdevelop because the developer carried over in the emulsion exhausts in the six minutes given (proved by lack of change in development over a fifteen degree temperature range).

I recommend use of a weak acid stop bath between Bath B and the bleach bath; Flexicolor Bleach, at least, is acidic enough to generate significant gas by reaction with the carbonate alkali (enough to pop the inversion cap off my stainless tanks), and stop bath leaks are far less worrisome than the same with either Flexicolor or ferricyanide bleach (plus, if you use ferricyanide bleach, it can't be significantly acidic, so a separate stop bath might be prudent to ensure development is stopped before bleaching begins).

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